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The characteristics and basic components of Cnc machine tools and how to automatically process them

Mar 09, 2019

Cnc machine tool, which is the abbreviation of digital control machine tool, is a machine tool with program control system and automatic operation and operation to automatically process the required parts, which can solve some parts processing problems well. Moreover, based on the outstanding characteristics of this machine tool, it is widely used in many industries and fields.


1. How do CNC machine tools automatically machine parts?

The process of automatically machining a part by a numerically controlled machine tool is specifically: logically processing and decoding a program specified by a control code or other symbol command by a control system, represented by a coded number, and then input into the numerical control device through the information carrier, After the arithmetic processing, various numerical control signals are issued by the numerical control device to control the movement of the machine tool, so that the processing can be performed according to the drawings, so that the parts of the desired shape and size can be obtained.


2. Features of CNC machine tools

(1) It has strong adaptability to the processing object and can be used for single piece production and manufacture.

(2) It has high processing accuracy and relatively stable processing quality. In addition, multi-coordinate linkage can be performed to process complex-shaped parts.

(3) To process different parts, just change the NC program, which is convenient for operation and saves preparation time.

(4) It has a high degree of automation and can reduce the labor intensity.

(5) It is conducive to the implementation and scale of production management, and the equipment reliability is high, but it has higher requirements for operators, requires a higher level of technology, and masters the professional knowledge of programming.


3. The structural composition of CNC machine tools

In the basic composition of CNC machine tools, there are machining program carriers, numerical control devices, servo drives, machine tool bodies and other auxiliary devices.


Processing program carrier: The part processing program is stored in a program carrier with a certain format and code, and the program information is input to the CNC unit through the input device of the numerical control machine tool.

CNC device: This is the core of CNC machine tools. It adopts CNC form and is composed of three parts: input, processing and output.

Servo drive: It is also an important part for machine feed servo control and spindle servo control.

The main body of the machine: there are mechanical parts such as bed, base, column, beam, slide, table, headstock, feed mechanism, tool holder and automatic tool changer, which are used to complete the mechanical parts of various cutting operations.

Auxiliary devices: there are pneumatic hydraulic devices, chip evacuation devices, cooling and lubrication devices, rotary table, CNC indexing heads, and protection and lighting devices to ensure the normal operation and use of CNC machine tools.